Journal of Business and Economic Development

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Research Article |

Review on: Factors Affecting Rural-Urban Poverty in Ethiopia

Agriculture is the backbone of Ethiopian Economy and agricultural production is the source of livelihood for millions of Ethiopians, especially for those in rural areas. Different factors are likely affecting the economic status of rural population of Ethiopia. Specifically, six major factors that are highlighted as contributing to the exasperation of poverty in Ethiopia include: low agricultural production, low non-farm income, low education and poor health, high population growth and weak institutional structures. Poverty is widespread in Ethiopia with a significant proportion of the population lacking the basic necessities of life, such as lack of food, decent clothing, and shelter. In addition, climatic factors, health status of the community, environmental degradation, technological adoption, farming system, and farm size, land degradation, population growth, inappropriate water management, unemployment and lack of income, weak urban governance, low access to education, low access to credit services, and so on, this are the factors that affect rural-urban poverties in Ethiopia. Different authors are used different models like binary logistic regression, variance and multiple regressions, probit regression model. And the model results showed that household education status, dependency ratio, residential area, and access to credit, household size, livestock and farm land ownership, sex of households, age of household head, and land size. Generally, the risk of poverty increases with family size both in urban and rural of Ethiopia.

Poverty, Farm Size, Population Growth, Income, Education, Technology

APA Style

Shibeshi Fekadu Tolesa, Gizaw Fetene Zeleke. (2023). Review on: Factors Affecting Rural-Urban Poverty in Ethiopia. Journal of Business and Economic Development, 8(4), 108-112.

ACS Style

Shibeshi Fekadu Tolesa; Gizaw Fetene Zeleke. Review on: Factors Affecting Rural-Urban Poverty in Ethiopia. J. Bus. Econ. Dev. 2023, 8(4), 108-112. doi: 10.11648/j.jbed.20230804.11

AMA Style

Shibeshi Fekadu Tolesa, Gizaw Fetene Zeleke. Review on: Factors Affecting Rural-Urban Poverty in Ethiopia. J Bus Econ Dev. 2023;8(4):108-112. doi: 10.11648/j.jbed.20230804.11

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Abebaw, I., 2020. Causes of Irregular Migration, Institutional and Legal Responses, Political Crisis in Ethiopia and the Measures Taken by the Laureates Noble Peace Winner Abiy Ahmed. English Language, Literature & Culture, 5 (4), p. 124.
2. Alem, Y. and Söderbom, M., 2021. Household-level consumption in urban Ethiopia: the effects of a large food price shock. World development, 40 (1), pp. 146-162.
3. Asmamaw, A., 2014. The Status and Determinants of Rural Household Poverty: The Case of Meta District, East Hararghe Zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia (Doctoral dissertation, Haramaya university).
4. Birhanu, K. and Nekemte, E., 2020. Determinants of urban poverty and coping strategies of the urban household, the case of shambu town, Horo Guduru Wollega zone Oromia region, Ethiopia.
5. Beshir, B., 2016. Determinants of urban household poverty in Arsi zone, Oromiya, Ethiopia. Journal of poverty, investment and development, 26.
6. Bradshaw, G., 2020. Determinants of Rural Poverty in Southern Ethiopia: Empirical Evidence from Gedeo Zone.
7. CSA. 2022. Report on Rural Poverty. Central Statistical Agency; sample survey 2021/2022. The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: Addis Ababa, April 2022.
8. Ermiyas, A., Batu, M. and Teka, E., 2019. Determinants of rural poverty in Ethiopia: a household level analysis in the case of Dejen woreda. Arts Soc. Sci. J, 10 (2), pp. 1-6.
9. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), 2022. Marketing improvement in the developing world Marketing and reducing poverty. Rome, Italy.
10. Kebede, A. D., 2020. Poverty and its nature in Ethiopia (Doctoral dissertation, KDI School).
11. Marker, G. and Solomon, T., 2016. Determinants and its extent of rural poverty in Ethiopia: Evidence from Doyogena District, Southern part of Ethiopia. Journal of Economics and International Finance, 10 (3), pp. 22-29.
12. MoFED, F. D. R. E., 2021. Ethiopia: Sustainable development and poverty reduction program. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
13. Muhdin, M., 2015. Determinants of rural income poverty in Ethiopia: Case study of villages in Dodola District. GlobalJournal of Management and Business Research, 15 (B11), pp. 25-32.
14. Namara, R., Makombe, G., Hagos, F. and Awulachew, S. B., 2022. Rural poverty and inequality in Ethiopia: do access to small-scale irrigation make a difference. 2022.
15. Rajan. R, Lemma D,. And ShimeliAk,. 2015. Research Experiences in poverty reduction, Research Report no. 55.
16. Soubbontine, T., 2019. Poverty reduction strategies in developing countries, Third Edition in Cornel University Press, Ithaca and London. 360 p 94.
17. Ibriam, D. and Umar, S., 2018, Characteristics of poverties and problems of farmers in the Hills Indian J. Agric. Economics, 52 (1): 139-150.
18. Tilmam, M., Shimeles, A., Kebede, B. and Bigsten, A., 2021. Growth and Poverty Reduction in Ethiopia: Evidence from Household Panel Surveys. rapport nr.: Working Papers in Economics, (65).
19. Woldeamanuel, S. G., 2018. Poverty, Food insecurity and Livelihood strategies in RuralGedeo: The case of Haroressa and Chichu PAs, SNNP. In Proceedings of the 16th International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, ed. by Svein Ege, Harald Aspen, Birhanu Teferra and Shiferaw Bekele, Trondheim.
20. World Bank, WorldDevelopment, 2021/2022, Attacking Poverty 2022a, Oxford University Press.
21. Yared, B., 2019. Environmental Problems and Solutions in Ethiopia Generally and in Africa Specifically. A Case Study on Ethiopia.