Volume 5, Issue 2, June 2020, Page: 90-98
Ethical Leadership Supports Voice Behavior: Evidence from Vietnamese Service Firms
Thi-Minh-Ngoc Luu, University of Economics and Business, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam
Viet-Dung Pham, Department of Business Administration, Hanoi University of Industry, Hanoi, Vietnam
Thi-Trang-Nhung Nguyen, Department of Business Administration, Hanoi University of Industry, Hanoi, Vietnam
Received: Mar. 28, 2020;       Accepted: Apr. 29, 2020;       Published: May 15, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.jbed.20200502.15      View  154      Downloads  74
Abstract
The research of ethical leadership has emerged as an important topic in relation to understanding the effects of leadership within an organization. Besides, in the last decades, there are numerous studies have been done that investigate some extra role behaviors, their antecedents, and consquences. Though voice behavior is not required in one’s job, it can contribute directly to the organizational contextual performance and indirectly to the job performance of individual employee as well as the performance of the whole organization. In this study, we propose that leader-member exchange (LMX) as a mechanism reflecting how ethical leadership affects the voice behavior of employees. We develop a mediation model of the psychological processes linking perceptions of ethical leadership and employee voice. This study examined the relationship between ethical leadership, leader-member exchange and the two components of voice behavior, defined as promotive voice and prohibitive voice, using a sample of 1238 supervisor-subordinate dyads from Vietnamese service firms. Results showed that ethical leadership related positively to promotive voice and prohibitive voice. In addition, leader-member exchange mediated the relationship between ethical leadership and promotive voice as well as prohibitive voice. Limitations of the study, directions for future research, and implications of the findings are discussed.
Keywords
Ethical Leadership, Promotive Voice, Prohibitive Voice, LMX
To cite this article
Thi-Minh-Ngoc Luu, Viet-Dung Pham, Thi-Trang-Nhung Nguyen, Ethical Leadership Supports Voice Behavior: Evidence from Vietnamese Service Firms, Journal of Business and Economic Development. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2020, pp. 90-98. doi: 10.11648/j.jbed.20200502.15
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
L. V. Dyne, S. Ang, and I. C. Botero, "Conceptualizing employee silence and employee voice as multidimensional constructs," Journal of management studies, vol. 40, pp. 1359-1392, 2003.
[2]
H.-H. Hsiung, "Authentic leadership and employee voice behavior: A multi-level psychological process," Journal of business ethics, vol. 107, pp. 349-361, 2012.
[3]
M. Chamberlin, D. W. Newton, and J. A. LePine, "A meta-analysis of empowerment and voice as transmitters of high-performance managerial practices to job performance," Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 39, pp. 1296-1313, 2018.
[4]
L. Van Dyne and J. A. LePine, "Helping and voice extra-role behaviors: Evidence of construct and predictive validity," Academy of Management journal, vol. 41, pp. 108-119, 1998.
[5]
L. Yuan, M.-C. Vu, and T.-T.-N. Nguyen, "Ethical leadership, leader-member exchange and voice behavior: Test of mediation and moderation processes," in Proceedings of the 2018 2nd International Conference on Management Engineering, Software Engineering and Service Sciences, 2018, pp. 33-42.
[6]
Y. Liu, B. Fuller, K. Hester, R. J. Bennett, and M. S. Dickerson, "Linking authentic leadership to subordinate behaviors," Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 39, pp. 218-233, 2018.
[7]
A. B. Bakker and E. Demerouti, "Multiple levels in job demands-resources theory: Implications for employee well-being and performance," Handbook of well-being, 2018.
[8]
M. E. Brown and L. K. Treviño, "Ethical leadership: A review and future directions," The leadership quarterly, vol. 17, pp. 595-616, 2006.
[9]
T. Islam, I. Ahmed, and G. Ali, "Effects of ethical leadership on bullying and voice behavior among nurses: mediating role of organizational identification, poor working condition and workload," Leadership in Health Services, vol. 32, pp. 2-17, 2019.
[10]
O. Demirtas and A. A. Akdogan, "The effect of ethical leadership behavior on ethical climate, turnover intention, and affective commitment," Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 130, pp. 59-67, 2015.
[11]
T. Yaffe and R. Kark, "Leading by example: the case of leader OCB," Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 96, p. 806, 2011.
[12]
W. Zhu, H. He, L. K. Treviño, M. M. Chao, and W. Wang, "Ethical leadership and follower voice and performance: The role of follower identifications and entity morality beliefs," The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 26, pp. 702-718, 2015.
[13]
J. B. Avey, T. S. Wernsing, and M. E. Palanski, "Exploring the process of ethical leadership: The mediating role of employee voice and psychological ownership," Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 107, pp. 21-34, 2012.
[14]
F. O. Walumbwa, E. W. Morrison, and A. L. Christensen, "Ethical leadership and group in-role performance: The mediating roles of group conscientiousness and group voice," The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 23, pp. 953-964, 2012.
[15]
J. R. Spence, D. L. Ferris, D. J. Brown, and D. Heller, "Understanding daily citizenship behaviors: A social comparison perspective," Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 32, pp. 547-571, 2011.
[16]
P. R. Vidyarthi, R. C. Liden, S. Anand, B. Erdogan, and S. Ghosh, "Where do I stand? Examining the effects of leader–member exchange social comparison on employee work behaviors," Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 95, p. 849, 2010.
[17]
S. Kim, J. W. O’Neill, and H.-M. Cho, "When does an employee not help coworkers? The effect of leader–member exchange on employee envy and organizational citizenship behavior," International Journal of Hospitality Management, vol. 29, pp. 530-537, 2010.
[18]
M. E. Brown, L. K. Treviño, and D. A. Harrison, "Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing," Organizational behavior and human decision processes, vol. 97, pp. 117-134, 2005.
[19]
J. M. Bonner, R. L. Greenbaum, and D. M. Mayer, "My boss is morally disengaged: The role of ethical leadership in explaining the interactive effect of supervisor and employee moral disengagement on employee behaviors," Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 137, pp. 731-742, 2016.
[20]
P. Pasricha and M. K. Rao, "The effect of ethical leadership on employee social innovation tendency in social enterprises: Mediating role of perceived social capital," Creativity and Innovation Management, vol. 27, pp. 270-280, 2018.
[21]
D. Bouckenooghe, A. Zafar, and U. Raja, "How ethical leadership shapes employees’ job performance: The mediating roles of goal congruence and psychological capital," Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 129, pp. 251-264, 2015.
[22]
S. Mo and J. Shi, "Linking ethical leadership to employee burnout, workplace deviance and performance: Testing the mediating roles of trust in leader and surface acting," Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 144, pp. 293-303, 2017.
[23]
J. Ahn, S. Lee, and S. Yun, "Leaders’ core self-evaluation, ethical leadership, and employees’ job performance: The moderating role of employees’ exchange ideology," Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 148, pp. 457-470, 2018.
[24]
D. Lee, Y. Choi, S. Youn, and J. U. Chun, "Ethical leadership and employee moral voice: The mediating role of moral efficacy and the moderating role of leader–follower value congruence," Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 141, pp. 47-57, 2017.
[25]
T. W. Ng and D. C. Feldman, "Employee voice behavior: A meta-analytic test of the conservation of resources framework," Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 33, pp. 216-234, 2012.
[26]
B. S. Klaas, J. B. Olson-Buchanan, and A.-K. Ward, "The determinants of alternative forms of workplace voice: An integrative perspective," Journal of Management, vol. 38, pp. 314-345, 2012.
[27]
S. Hassan, "The importance of ethical leadership and personal control in promoting improvement-centered voice among government employees," Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, vol. 25, pp. 697-719, 2015.
[28]
D. Wang, C. Gan, C. Wu, and D. Wang, "Ethical leadership and employee voice: Employee self-efficacy and self-impact as mediators," Psychological reports, vol. 116, pp. 751-767, 2015.
[29]
S. Anand, P. Vidyarthi, and S. Rolnicki, "Leader-member exchange and organizational citizenship behaviors: Contextual effects of leader power distance and group task interdependence," The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 29, pp. 489-500, 2018.
[30]
J. D. Nahrgang, F. P. Morgeson, and R. Ilies, "The development of leader–member exchanges: Exploring how personality and performance influence leader and member relationships over time," Organizational behavior and human decision processes, vol. 108, pp. 256-266, 2009.
[31]
R. T. Sparrowe and R. C. Liden, "Process and Structure in Leader-Member Exchange," The Academy of Management Review, vol. 22, pp. 522-552, 1997.
[32]
S. S. Masterson, K. Lewis, B. M. Goldman, and M. S. Taylor, "Integrating justice and social exchange: The differing effects of fair procedures and treatment on work relationships," Academy of Management journal, vol. 43, pp. 738-748, 2000.
[33]
R. Cropanzano and M. S. Mitchell, "Social Exchange Theory: An Interdisciplinary Review," Journal of Management, vol. 31, pp. 874-900, December 1, 2005 2005.
[34]
B. Erdogan, R. C. Liden, and M. L. Kraimer, "Justice and leader-member exchange: The moderating role of organizational culture," Academy of Management journal, vol. 49, pp. 395-406, 2006.
[35]
L. K. Treviño, G. R. Weaver, and S. J. Reynolds, "Behavioral ethics in organizations: A review," Journal of management, vol. 32, pp. 951-990, 2006.
[36]
A. O. Hirschman, Exit, voice, and loyalty: Responses to decline in firms, organizations, and states vol. 25: Harvard university press, 1970.
[37]
A. H. Hon, W. W. Chan, and L. Lu, "Overcoming work-related stress and promoting employee creativity in hotel industry: The role of task feedback from supervisor," International Journal of Hospitality Management, vol. 33, pp. 416-424, 2013.
[38]
J. R. Detert and E. R. Burris, "Leadership behavior and employee voice: Is the door really open?" Academy of Management journal, vol. 50, pp. 869-884, 2007.
[39]
E. W. Morrison, S. L. Wheeler-Smith, and D. Kamdar, "Speaking up in groups: a cross-level study of group voice climate and voice," Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 96, p. 183, 2011.
[40]
J. Liang, C. I. C. Farh, and J.-L. Farh, "Psychological antecedents of promotive and prohibitive voice: a two-wave examination," The Academy of Management Journal, vol. 55, pp. 71-92, 2012.
[41]
R. C. Liden, R. T. Sparrowe, and S. J. Wayne, "Leader-member exchange theory: The past and potential for the future," Research in personnel and human resources management, vol. 15, pp. 47-120, 1997.
[42]
R. Ilies, J. D. Nahrgang, and F. P. Morgeson, "Leader-member exchange and citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis," Journal of applied psychology, vol. 92, p. 269, 2007.
[43]
L. Van Dyne, D. Kamdar, and J. Joireman, "In-role perceptions buffer the negative impact of low LMX on helping and enhance the positive impact of high LMX on voice," Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 93, p. 1195, 2008.
[44]
M. Uhl-Bien, G. B. Graen, and T. A. Scandura, "Implications of leader-member exchange (LMX) for strategic human resource management systems: Relationships as social capital for competitive advantage," Research in personnel and human resources management, vol. 18, pp. 137-186, 2000.
[45]
H. H. Hsiung and W. C. Tsai, "Job definition discrepancy between supervisors and subordinates: The antecedent role of LMX and outcomes," Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, vol. 82, pp. 89-112, 2009.
[46]
R. J. Deluga, "Supervisor trust building, leader-member exchange and organizational citizenship behaviour," Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, vol. 67, pp. 315-326, 1994.
[47]
G. B. Graen and M. Uhl-Bien, "Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective," The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 6, pp. 219-247, June 1, 1995 1995.
[48]
J. Liang, C. I. Farh, and J.-L. Farh, "Psychological antecedents of promotive and prohibitive voice: A two-wave examination," Academy of Management Journal, vol. 55, pp. 71-92, 2012.
[49]
L. t. Hu and P. M. Bentler, "Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives," Structural equation modeling: a multidisciplinary journal, vol. 6, pp. 1-55, 1999.
[50]
J. C. Anderson and D. W. Gerbing, "Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach," Psychological bulletin, vol. 103, p. 411, 1988.
[51]
R. M. Baron and D. A. Kenny, "The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 51, pp. 1173-1182, Dec 1986 1986.
[52]
K. J. Preacher and A. F. Hayes, "Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models," Behavior research methods, vol. 40, pp. 879-891, 2008.
[53]
N. H. S. Wijaya, "Proactive Personality, LMX, and Voice Behavior: Employee–Supervisor Sex (Dis) similarity as a Moderator," Management Communication Quarterly, vol. 33, pp. 86-100, 2019.
[54]
Y. Hu, L. Zhu, J. Li, P. Maguire, M. Zhou, H. Sun, et al., "Exploring the influence of ethical leadership on voice behavior: how leader-member exchange, psychological safety and psychological empowerment influence employees’ willingness to speak out," Frontiers in psychology, vol. 9, p. 1718, 2018.
Browse journals by subject