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Determinants of Pastoralists Livelihoods Diversification in Ethiopia: A Literature Review

Pastoral is a livelihood in which at least 50% of a household’s food income is derived from livestock. In Ethiopia the pastorals represent 10% of the all populations and which they hold 42% of the livestock populations of the country. The livestock contribute 16% and 33% for National and Agricultural sector GDP respectively. Despite its contribution for the sector development specifically and the country in general, Ethiopian, pastoralist livelihoods are increasingly under pressure. Policies have favoured externally imposed development schemes which often alienate and expropriate pastoral lands in favour of large-scale commercial activities. This reviewed paper focus is to assess the push and pull factors for pastorals livelihood diversification in Ethiopia. Pastoralist livelihood systems of a country are become increasingly vulnerable due to resource range land degradation, diminishing resilience against drought, population growth, break up of traditional governance system; lack of market linkage, least developed of veterinary services, and water sources both for human and livestock and rural finance. These factors are push factors for pastorals livelihood diversification in Ethiopia. On the other hand, Expansion of education, infrastructure, and expansion of on-farm employment opportunities and strengths of market linkage are the pull factors for livelihood diversification. The government and others development practitioners should encourage the livelihood diversification of pastoral households and support with the area-specific policy and strategies to ensure the development of pastoral households in the country.

Ethiopia, Factors, Determinants, Diversification, Pastorals

Tesfaye Tura, Tsion Tekalegni. (2023). Determinants of Pastoralists Livelihoods Diversification in Ethiopia: A Literature Review. Journal of Business and Economic Development, 8(3), 77-82.

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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